REST (Representational State Transfer) is an architectural style of which the web architecture is the most prominent example, one based on HTTP requests and responses, URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers), and document types.
Web scripts let you implement your own RESTful API without tooling or Java knowledge. You simply need your favorite text editor. No compilation, generators, server restarts, or complex installs are required. This approach to developing an Alfresco Content Services API means that web scripts offer many advantages over existing technologies, including ease and speed of development, and flexibility in API design.
By focusing on the RESTful architectural style and ease of development, web scripts let you build your own custom URI-identified and HTTP accessible content management web services backed by the Alfresco Content Services server. This is like having an HTTP server with a built-in content repository allowing clients to easily access, manage, and cross-link content via a tailored RESTful interface designed specifically for the application requirements.